Percieved Healthcare
Average Requirement for Energy-Kcal

Recent OECD analysis suggests that health care spending growth has contributed to the improvement in life expectancy, but other determinants such as rising living standards, environmental improvements, lifestyle changes and education are also important drivers.


Further progress in population health status and life expectancy can be achieved by putting greater emphasis on public health and disease prevention especially among disadvantaged groups.


Chronic (non-communicable) diseases including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory conditions and diabetes, are now the main causes of disability and death in OECD countries. Chronic diseases cause around three-quarters of all deaths in OECD countries. Many of these diseases are preventable, since they are linked to modifiable lifestyles.


Overweight and obesity is another important risk factor for many chronic diseases. In 20 of the 34 OECD countries, more than 50% of the adult population is now defined as being overweight or obese.


Source: The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Healthy_ageingWe refer to lifestyle as all the elements which define a way of life – from work and living conditions and the stress generated by these, to nutrition and fitness choices. Lifestyle incorporates the family and social connections, the living conditions, education and opportunities.   In our context, well-being is a goal which can be achieved by each person through making lifestyle changes. Source: World Health Organization: Well being is a determinant part and a goal of all types of lifestyle. Well being can be defined through objective and subjective elements.   Elements of objective well-being include people’s living conditions and their opportunities to realize their potential: opportunities that in principle should be equitably distributed among all people, without discrimination on any basis. A fair chance at health is one part of objective well-being.   Elements of subjective well-being include people’s experiences of their own lives. Based on these elements, wellbeing has either been framed as a composite of different building blocks or a concept in itself.   A large body of literature and research defines well-being as a function of life opportunities and achievements.   A new OECD review documented three separate areas, each contributing important information, that make up subjective well-being:

  • eudemonic well-being – self perceptions of autonomy, competence,

purpose of life, locus of control;

  •  positive and negative state – experience of joy, happiness, anxiety,


  • life evaluation – a reflective assessment.

Other conceptual models have different underlying assumptions. Moreover, well-being is envisaged as both a state and a dynamic process.